In the earlier article, we learned about IoT, in this article we will learn about the building blocks of IoT, so read the article completely.
Elements of IoT
Following are the four building blocks of an IoT system, and they have their own
1. Sensors of
Sensors are the front end of IoT devices. They actually mean “things” in the Internet of Things. Their main function is to get the required data from the surroundings and forward it to the database or processing system. Sensors must be uniquely discoverable from the IP address there because they are the basic front end interface to a large network of other devices. Sensors collect real time data and can either operate anonymously or can be user controlled.
Examples of sensors are: gas sensor, water quality sensor, moisture sensor, image sensor, etc.
As with computers and other electrical systems, processors are the brain of the IoT system. The main job of the processor is to process the raw data collected by the sensor and convert them into some meaningful information and knowledge. In short, we can say that its job is to give intelligence to the data.
Processors can be easily controlled by the application and their another important function is to provide security to the data. They do encryption and decryption of data.
Microcontrollers, embedded hardware devices, etc. can process data using the processor embedded within the device.
The main function of the gateway is to route the processed data and transfer it to the appropriate database or network storage for proper use. In other words, the gateway helps in the communication of data. Communication and network connectivity are essential for IoT system.
4. Application of IoT
Applications are the other end of the IoT system. Applications make appropriate use of all the data collected and provide an interface for users to interact with that data. These applications can be cloud based applications which are responsible for presenting the collected data. Applications are controlled by the user and are the delivery points of particular services.
Examples of applications are: smart home apps, security system control applications, industrial control hub applications, etc.
Architecture layers of IoT
The IoT system architecture consists of three layers. The number of layers and the implementation of the IoT system may vary as per the requirement. Generally, we can define IoT system architecture using these three layers.
1.IoT’s Physical Layer
There are three types of devices in the physical layer.
- There is an access system, this system can have various sensors and RF ID system to collect the raw data.
- Internet devices, these devices are mainly used for communication.
- Transmission lines, this includes all high-end communication devices such as satellites, transmission hubs, and data networks. The main purpose of physical layer is to collect data and transfer it to appropriate cloud based applications and database applications.
2. IoT’s Fundamental resources layer
There are two subsystems in this layer –
Address Management System
As we discussed earlier, the IoT ecosystem is identified by an IP address. We need a system that manages all these devices in the IoT system and this is done by the Address Management System. It does address allocation, verification and tracing of all the devices.
IO Management System
It manages all the IO operations related to raw data. This system consists of application and database servers which actually analyze the data. This system controls the IO registration, resolution and monitoring tasks.
3. IoT’s Application Layer
The Application Layer is the topmost layer of the IoT architecture that makes effective use of the collected data. These applications mainly work on information to present the data in a more meaningful way. This layer provides IoT services. The application layer is responsible for securing information and data. Immediate responses are required in some situations. This layer helps in extracting information, managing the data flow and abstracting data.